Diprosopus Conjoined Twins: Case study on the diagnosis of a rare disease

Explore this case study on the prenatal diagnosis of Diprosopus Conjoined Twins, a rare craniofacial anomaly, highlighting the clinical presentation, prognosis, and the role of advanced technologies like AI in early detection and management.

Case Studies

Reference Case from Rasha Abo Almagd

Associate Professor Obstetric and Gynecology, Zagazig University, Egypt.

A 25-year-old G1P0 woman with unremarkable past medical and family history was sent to our clinic at 15 weeks, 2 days gestation for the routine second-trimester scan. The ultrasound scanning revealed the following findings: intricate complexities of diprosopus conjoined twins, characterized by cranial duplication, absence of the skull vault, exencephaly, rachischisis of the cervical spine, and the striking duplication of facial features. Notably, the identification of four orbits posed a diagnostic conundrum in this rare fetal anomaly.

Diprosopus Conjoined Twins Pathology Description

The pathology and description of diprosopus-conjoined twins involve a detailed radiologic, autoptic, and histologic study to understand the structural anomalies present in these unique cases. According to Orphanet’s classification¹ diprosopus is an extremely rare craniofacial duplication anomaly that falls under the category of “rare developmental defect during embryogenesis, with a reported incidence ranging from 1 in 180,000 to 15 million births.1 

Diprosopus, a Greek term meaning duplication of the face, is a sporadic form of craniofacial malformation characterized by the duplication of facial features”. This condition typically involves craniofacial duplication while the trunk and limbs remain normal.

Early diagnosis of Diprosopus Conjoined Twins with Sonio

Sonio stands at the forefront of prenatal ultrasound technology, offering a comprehensive AI solution, designed to streamline and automate prenatal ultrasound workflows. Trusted by Women’s Health teams worldwide, Sonio’s innovative approach optimizes clinical databases, ensures operational efficiency, and maintains quality assurance through smart checklists and risk factor visualization. This new era of prenatal ultrasound care epitomizes clinical excellence, operational efficiency, and quality assurance, empowering prenatal ultrasound professionals to deliver high-quality maternal care globally. Sonio is based on over five years of research and collaboration between leading experts in fetal medicine and AI.2


  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6208228/
  2. Clinical AI capabilities are part of FDA 510(K) cleared Sonio Detect.

Example of Diprosopus Conjoined Twins

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